Phoenix, Arizona – Phoenix is known with its rich history, which was created by immigrants, homesteaders and people living there since ancient times. History starts when Phoenix was populated by Hohokam people in the Salt River Valley which is also known as Phoenix Metropolitan Area or Valley of the Sun.
Phoenix is the capital of US state of Arizona, which counts the largest number of population, compared to other state capitals. According to the 2010 United States Census, the city is the sixth among the most populated ones in the United States. Phoenix is considered to be one of the largest cities of Arizona state, conceding the following cities only: Anchorage, Alaska; Jacksonville, Florida; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and Houston, Texas.
According to a Census established by the US government, the original territory of Phoenix was about a mile long and a half-mile wide, with 74 dwellings and a population of 250. Nowadays the Census shows a different picture with about 2,000 square miles and a total population of over 4 million. The Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) (officially known as the Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale MSA), is one of 10 MSAs in Arizona, and was the 14th largest in the United States. The MSA is composed of Pinal and Maricopa counties, and records 65.5% of the total population of the state of Arizona. Phoenix is also part of the Arizona Sun Corridor megaregion (MR), which is the 10th most populous of the 11 MRs, and the 8th largest by area.
Being one of the leading cities in terms of population growth within ten-years period, Phoenix population growth rate was reduced during the Great Recession of 2007–2009. However, 2000 Census data shows Phoenix population multiply with 9,4% and the Phoenix metropolitan area grew by 28.9% during the same period.
2010 Census incorporated the following statistics:
• White: 65.9% (46.5% non-Hispanic)
• Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 40.8% (35.9% Mexican, 0.6% Puerto Rican 0.5% Guatemalan, 0.3% Salvadoran, 0.3% Cuban)
• Black or African American: 6.5% (6.0% non-Hispanic)
• Native American: 2.6%
• Asian: 3.2% (0.8% Indian, 0.5% Filipino, 0.5% Korean, 0.4% Chinese, 0.4% Vietnamese, 0.2% Japanese, 0.2% Thai, 0.1% Burmese)
• Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1%
• Other race: 0.1%
• Two or more races: 1.7%
• Christians : 66%
• Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism collectively: 7%
• Catholic: 35%
• Evangelical Protestant: 16%
By sex and age:
• Male: 50,85%
• Female: 49,15%
• Residents under 20 years old: 32%
• Residents from 20-85 years old: 67,11%
• Residents of 85 years old and over: 0,88%
Phoenix was established as a city in 1881. Within that period agricultural and natural resources were playing a leading role in the city economic development. Salt River project, being finalized, helped to develop agriculture field due to water resources available, allowing farmers to assembly a rich harvest of alfalfa, citrus and cotton, due to the territory dry and warm climate.
Cotton pruduction area was one the most succeeding one in Phoenix for the period. World War 2 inhibited cotton productions, however new economic development source was found in copper corps. Arizona is considered to be one of the largest copper producing state, which was further symbolised as a copper star in the flag’s center. Cattle and meat industry was developed close to 1920, when the largest meat producing plant was established in Phoenix.
Within the period of 1920-1930 economic growth was also caused by the establishment of the main rail line and the construction of the Sky Harbor airport, which further led to an increase of tourism industry, which now plays a significant role in the city economic development.
The Great Depression had a negative influence on Phoenix economy, resulting in decrease of the main industries revenues. At the end of the World War 2 Phoenix economy restarted its activity with a new wave, developing such industries as military electronics and construction.
Nowadays many high-tech and telecommunications companies, foreign offices chambers of commerce and trade associations are located in Phoenix, expanding city business economy. Such large companies as American Express, Best Western, US Air/American Airlines are currently established and run their business in Phoenix.
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