Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a set of apolipoprotein that is present in the Intermediate-Density Lipoprotein (IDLs) and chylomicron. It is important for the regular catabolism of lipoprotein constituents that are rich in triglyceride. The ApoE protein plays various significant roles in our bodies, including the transport of cholesterol and various cholesterol-like molecules, such as beta-amyloid, in Central Nervous System (CNS) and blood circulation. It acts as a ligand for LDL (apolipoprotein B / Apolipoprotein E) receptor and for the particular apolipoprotein E receptor, e.g. chylomicron remnant, of hepatic tissues.
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Ever since its identification, ApoE has turned out to be one of the most extensively studied gene variants; not just for cardiovascular diseases but also in relation to various other health conditions such as autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. ApoE has three common isoforms namely, ApoE 2, ApoE 3, and ApoE 4), coded by codominant alleles i.e., e 2, e 3, and e 4.
Apolipoprotein E is produced mainly in the liver; however, it is also found in the lungs, brain, kidneys, spleen, testis, peripheral nerves, muscular tissues, and ovaries. In the brain, it is synthesized by astrocytes as well as, to a small extent, by microglia. It can also be created by neurons in response to any neuronal damage or stress. The key function of ApoE is to transport cholesterol and various other lipids by binding to ApoE receptors on the surface of their cells. Apolipoprotein E is also important to act as a cofactor in enzymatic reaction and for stabilization & solubilization of lipoproteins and maintaining the structural integrity of lipoproteins in the blood. In the brain, cholesterol plays an important role in the production of myelin and it is also a vital factor of brain development, membrane sheaths, neuronal maintenance, long-term synaptic plasticity, and neuronal repair.
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On account of its major role in the lipid metabolism regulation, ApoE was first identified for the role of it in various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although the isoform ApoE 3 is not related to an increased CVD risks, the isoform ApoE 4 is the main risk factor for CVDs, e.g. arrhythmias, stroke, and coronary heart disease. It is now very well known that ApoE is also related to a number of other disorders. For instance, ApoE 4 is the main hereditary risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer Disease.
The report covers pipeline products based on different stages of the development right from pre-registration to discovery and other undisclosed stages. It also features descriptive drug profiles that include R&D brief, descriptive Mechanism of Action (MoA), product description, licensing and partnership details, and various other developmental actions and then it evaluates Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) therapeutics on the basis of drug target, Route of Administration (RoA), molecule type, and MoA. The key companies operating in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) market are ReXceptor Inc. and LipimetiX Development Inc.
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