TLR belongs to the innate immune pathogen recognition receptors. It can recognize invading pathogenic microorganisms’ proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and intermediates or metabolites in the synthetic reaction process, such as gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), gram positive bacteria peptide polysaccharide and virus double stranded RNA. All of them belong to the molecular structure of highly conserved PAMP (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern). Through the identification of PAMP, TLR rapidly activates intracellular signaling cascades from adaptor protein, signaling complexes and transcription factor complex, resulting in proinflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TLR activates immune cells, initiates innate immune responses and stimulate the adaptive immune response to pathogen clearance by identifying different ways.
1. Structure and molecular characterization of TLR
So far, 13 kinds of TLR have been found in mammals, of which TLR1-9 is common in human, rat and mouse, TLR10 exists in humans, rats and opossum, and TLR11 exists in mice. TLR belongs to type I transmembrane protein, which can be divided into three parts: extracellular region, transmembrane region and intracellular region. TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR10 and TLR11 are located on the cell membrane, while TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 are located on the organelle membrane of the cell.
2. The expression and distribution of TLR
The TLR family is widely distributed and can achieve stable gene expression in various tissues and cells: TLR1 is mainly expressed in various immune cells; TLR2 and TLR3 are widely expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; TLR4 is expressed in lymphocytes and epithelial cells, TLR5 is mainly expressed in myeloid derived immune cells, TLR11-13 is expressed in mouse nervous system and immune cells.
Creative Biogene provided TLR positive immune receptor stable cell lines as well as corresponding ligands for comparison.
3. The signal transduction pathway of TLR
There are two main signal transduction pathways in TLR family: one is myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) dependent TLR signaling pathway; the other one is MyD88 non-dependent /TRIF (IFN- beta) dependent signal transduction pathway. MyD88, a key adaptor protein in the TLR signaling pathway, plays a role in all TLR signaling pathways other than TLR3.
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