Phantom is a scalable blockchain operating system, and some of the next technical logic programming is being implemented.

The current blockchain operating system is a very good story of technical success. We are designing Phantom from the following key breakthroughs:

Phantom is a scalable blockchain operating system, and some of the next technical logic programming is being implemented.

(1) State division of smart contracts. Phantom divides the smart contract state, which is to place the smart contract in different slices. Smart contracts contain code and stored data, so they are much larger than normal user accounts (for example, an ERC20 contract contains a large number of corresponding mappings of addresses and balances).

(2) Atomicity: Each smart contract has a slice value (fuetShardId named in our code base), and any batch operations on all smart contracts with the same slice value will remain atomic. In addition, we will also ban a smart contract to access smart contracts with different chip values.

(3) State division of the ordinary account. Phantom does not split the user’s account so that users can easily transfer their account status (mainly is balance information) to a slice via a cross-chip transaction. This allows the user to access all of the resources in all slices (including all smart contracts deployed on Phantom) with a single private key.

(4) Load balancing: Assuming that the slice values ​​of the smart contract are evenly distributed, the smart contracts will also be evenly distributed among different slices.

To maintain the atomicity of CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, and Delete) operations in Phantom, Phantom adds a string of 32-bit slices to each address to redefine the address of the account and smart contract:

The state in the fragment is a key-value mapping, where key is the recipient address, and value contains the following information:

Balance:

Nonce:

Code:

Storage:

shardKey:

When a chip value is set, the key-value pair cannot be changed once it is established.

This time, some of the techniques in the smart contracts and shards in the Phantom operating system are decomposed and upgraded. This will be very beneficial to the efficiency of Phantom’s execution of smart contracts in the future.

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