Rate of world’s water consumption is doubling every 20 years, outpacing twice the rate of growth of population. Water demand is on the rise and due to this the availability of the good quality clean water is diminishing. Consumption of fresh water for the human and the industrial needs is very limited. Desalination process was started to boost the water supply by using natural resources to meets the growth in demand for the water. In desalination, pure water is recovered from saline sources with the help of feasible technologies.
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Desalination procedure is mainly based on two rinciples: condensation/evaporation and filtration/ separation. Evaporation process mainly requires thermal energy which heats and condenses the water which can be then collected as freshwater. A small part of electrical energy is required to transfer the fluid and create low or high pressure for the process of evaporation. In separation process, membrane acts as a physical barrier which separates molecules of water from saline water with the help of diffusion or perforation. Desalination mainly produces two streams- fresh water stream and concentrated stream. The technologies involved in the desalination process are divided into two main categories: membrane desalination and thermal desalination. Membrane desalination is subdivided into three main technologies: Reverse Osmosis (RO), Membrane Distillation (MD) and Electrodialysis (ED) and thermal desalination is subdivided into three main technologies: Multi-effect distillation, Vapor Compression and Multi-Stage Flash Distillation.
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The two main sources of water involved in the desalination technologies are brackish water and seawater. Brackish water is expected to increase, however, the availability of limited reservoirs of brackish water across the world may restrict the market growth of desalination technology. Seawater desalination is the main process followed all over the world except for North America, where brackish water is the main resources Seawater desalination market is anticipated to increase the market growth due to the rise in number of the projects of desalination. In the coming years, the market value for seawater desalination is anticipated to increase the market up to the certain extent as there are many Government subsidies being planned for seawater desalination in China, Singapore and Morocco.
The global desalination market is fragmented into large and medium scaled companies. Companies such as Veolia Environment, Doosan Heavy Industries, GE and Suez Environment are the large scaled companies whereas, Hyflux, Aquatech, Fisia and Italimpianti are medium scaled companies. Each of these companies are moving forward to improve the desalination technology to reduce the cost of production, strengthening and expanding the industry globally.
Geographically, the regions focusing on the market of desalination and its technologies globally are Europe, North America, Asia Pacific (India, Australia and China) and Middle East & Africa (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kuwait and Israel).
Challenges faced in rural areas for the implementation of desalination technologies are:
- Power supply- In rural areas, the power supply varies from 8 to 10 hours a day and when there is power supply available there are other problems occurring such as fluctuations in voltage and sudden power cuts.
- Inaccessibility and Remoteness- Remote areas face difficulties in case of equipment failure due to unavailability of skilled manpower and spare parts. In such situations, critical moving parts are available in spare mode and substantial spare parts are always available.
Key segments of the global water desalination market
Technology Overview, 2014 – 2025 (USD Million)
- Reverse osmosis (RO)
- Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF)
- Multiple-effect distillation (MED)
- Electrodialysis (ED)
Water Source Overview, 2014 – 2025 (USD Million)
- Brackish water
Regional Overview, 2014 – 2025 (USD Million)
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Middle East
- Saudi Arabia
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Table of Contents:
1. Research Methodology
2. Executive Summary
3. Market Outlook
4. Technology Overview
5. Water Source Overview
6. Regional Overview
7. Industry Structure
8. Company Profiles
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