Fungal endocarditis is an infection of the heart’s inner lining, known as the endocardium. The etiologic fungi more commonly observed are the Candida and Aspergillus species.
The gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis is culture and the isolation of etiologic agents from infected valves, emboli, and other materials collected by different invasive methods such as surgery.
A number of factor such as rising incidents of fungal endocarditis, increasing awareness about fungal infections, improving regulatory framework, increasing government assistance, and rising funding and reimbursement are propelling the growth of the global fungal endocarditis market.
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As per the study published in the International Cardiovascular Research Journal in 2014, it is found that Candida albicans, and Aspergillus species are the most frequent cause of fungal endocarditis. Candida albicans is found to be responsible for 24%-46% of cases of fungal endocarditis, and for 3.4% of the prosthetic valve endocarditis cases with associated mortality rates of 46.6%-50%. After Candida, Aspergillus species is the second most common cause of fungal endocarditis, accounting for nearly 25% of the cases of fungal endocarditis in cardiac valve prostheses and the great vessels.
With an increasing age, the incidence of Candida fungal endocarditis decreases whereas the incidence of Aspergillus fungal endocarditis increases. The affected cardiac sites in neonates is significantly different from the adults with the right atrium being predominant in 63% of neonates
The possible complications associated with fungal endocarditis are congestive heart failure, mitral and aortic valve incompetence, neurological complications, formation of myocardial abscesses, and metastatic infections. According to a study published in PLOS one in 2013, it is found that the incidence of hospitalization for fungal endocarditis in the United States is 12.7 per 100,000 annually.
Notably, rising awareness about fungal infections is the key factor driving the fungal endocarditis market. Nowadays, people are becoming more aware about the different types of fungal infections. Government and other different organizations have started educating people about the hygiene and infectious diseases. People are becoming more aware and conscious about the diseases. Thus, increasing awareness has provided a push to the growth of the market.
Various other push factors such as increasing incidents of fungal infections, increasing government assistance, improving regulatory framework, and rising funding and reimbursement continuously contributing to the growth of the global fungal endocarditis market.
Despite these drivers, there are some issues associated with fungal endocarditis market. Some of the challenges in research and development are side-effects of treatment, presence of misbranded and spurious drugs, and poor healthcare system in low and middle-income countries, which may hinder the growth of the market to an extent. In contrast to the remedial effects, antifungal treatment can have many side effects as well. Some of them include: irritation, itching, headache, diarrhoea, and anaemia. They are also responsible for causing kidney and liver damage. Beside this, many antifungal medicines can cause allergic reactions, thus, they are not prescribed to pregnant women and children.
It is estimated that the fungal endocarditis market is expected to grow at a CAGR 4.2% during the forecast period of 2017-2023.
The global fungal endocarditis market is segmented on the basis of type of causative agent, diagnosis, treatment, and end-user.
On the basis of the type of causative agent, the market is segmented into Candida species
Aspergillus species, and Histoplasma capsulatum.
On the basis of the diagnosis, the market is classified into physical examination, blood test, X-ray, echocardiography, and electrocardiogram
On the basis of the treatment, the market is classified as antifungal medication, surgery, and combined treatment. The antifungal medication is further segmented into voriconazole, amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole, caspofungin, echinocandins, and others.
On the basis of the end-users, the market is segmented into hospital, clinics, diagnostic centers, and others.
The Americas dominate the fungal endocarditis market owing to the rising awareness among people, and high healthcare expenditure. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, the total health expenditure in the United States was reported to be USD 3.2 trillion and hospital care accounted for a share of 32.3%.
Europe holds the second position in the fungal endocarditis market. It is expected that the support provided by the government bodies for research & development and improvement in reimbursement policies in the healthcare is likely to drive the market of Europe region.
The Asia Pacific is the fastest growing fungal endocarditis market owing to a huge patient pool and developing healthcare technology. Healthcare expenditure is also improving in various Asia Pacific countries. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare in the years 2015-2016, the total health expenditure was USD 170.4 billion, which is 3.6% higher than the expenditure of 2014-2015.
The Middle East & Africa holds the lowest market due to lack of technical knowledge and poor medical facilities.
Some of key the players in the global fungal endocarditis market are Pfizer, Merck & Co., Sanofi, Astellas Pharma, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Novartis AG, Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bayer AG, Sigma-Aldrich, Abbott Laboratories, Eli Lily and Company, and Others.
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Detailed Table of Contents:
1. Report Prologue
2. Market Introduction
2.2 Scope Of The Study
2.2.1 Research Objective
3. Research Methodology
3.2 Primary Research
3.3 Secondary Research
3.4 Market Size Estimation
4. Market Dynamics
4.5 Macroeconomic Indicators
4.6 Technology Trends & Assessment
Chapter 5. Market Factor Analysis
5.1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
5.1.1 Bargaining Power Of Suppliers
5.1.2 Bargaining Power Of Buyers
5.1.3 Threat Of New Entrants
5.1.4 Threat Of Substitutes
5.1.5 Intensity Of Rivalry
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