This pathfinding research and exploration by Bhekuzulu brings out interesting observations on heat, photons, energy, radiation, and electromagnetic spectrum and also challenges many existing principles in the present-day science, specific to thermodynamics and physics.
This paper allows us to look at heat from the quantum where it originates, what temperature is, what is being transferred from a hotter system to a cooler system, and why is all the heat not escaping the earth and it is surrounded by cold space. Bhekuzulu also questions the fundamental understanding of the definition of energy and argues that our present misunderstanding of the concept of energy fails to give us a full picture of the energies involved in the electromagnetic spectrum.
This research paper challenges the present accepted understanding of “heat” as the degree to which something is hot (or how hot it is). To be more specific, it challenges the existing definitions of heat with respect to temperature as defined by modern scientific principles. Bhekuzulu rejects most of the existing canonized knowledge surrounding heat and provides a comprehensive reasoning for rejecting that knowledge.
To appreciate this new understanding of heat, Bhekuzulu goes back to the experiments in 1800s by the German-British astronomer Sir William Herschel, where he discovered infrared using a simple experiment. The average heat in the atmosphere is less than visible light. To prove this, from Herschel’s experiment, Bhekuzulu observes that the complex mixture of photons in the atmosphere are of higher frequencies and that causes us to achieve temperatures that are comfortable to us. The logical conclusion is that too much visible light means greater heat. From Herschel’s experiment, Bhekuzulu also concludes that in the colour spectrum, the longer wave lengths are hotter than shorter wave lengths.
From this experiment, it is also observed that visible light cannot be the majority of photons in our environment. However, there are not as many low penetrating photons, otherwise, the environment would be much hotter. Low penetrating photons as they do not pass, easily deliver heat energy. For example, in a furnace, the low penetrating photons are abundant, and those are the type of photons that are absorbed. To create an internal balance, photons of similar type are released as they represent a similar type of electromagnetic radiation, just as when visible light is radiated.
Heat is a result of the release of photons. This modifies the existing definitions of heat and thermal energy and answers the questions like what is the thermal energy that is transferred from a hotter system to a cooler system, where is this hotter system getting the heat from, where is the stick getting heat from when it burns, why does cold air rush in, how can a cooler system contribute to hotter system, etc.
Bhekuzulu analyses how the metals maintain their shape at higher temperatures. The rigid structure of metals allows them to absorb more heat than most other materials still keeping their shape more or less, at 500 degrees. But, when the temperature increases, the dynamics that happens is as follows. To maintain a balance of photons that it receives, and to maintain the internal balance, the metal must radiate out what it receives. Due to the absorption and radiation of particular type of photons and also due to the quality of their energy, when a discrete number of photons are released, the metal turns to a liquid. It changes its state to allow itself a greater surface area where it can allow more low frequency photon absorption and radiation.
In this research paper, Bhekuzulu also illustrates that photons do not have different amounts of energies, but rather different types of energy. In the atmosphere, there are many different types of photons with different frequencies and the temperature is merely a strict average of their energy types. It is the atmosphere that gives more evidence around the nature of photons. This paper concludes that all photons have the same amount of energy.
The composition of the energy within a photon depends on the frequency of a photon. A lower frequency photon, like those represented by infrared, can boil water faster than higher frequency blue light. A higher frequency photon like a gamma particle is stopped by lead.
The visible light can never ever be the dominant photon on this earth as Bhekuzulu observes that visible light is merely an illusion because that is what we see. But, the red light that is far away might come to us uninterrupted, because the photons are not interfering with each other. Taking the example of what we see in a TV screen from a distance, Bhekuzulu concludes that there is enormous amount of photon activity of many different types, far more than the visible light, which is being radiated to the eyes of a television viewer. As every photon is a mixture of both heat and penetrating energy, the average temperature is reduced to show the average heat being generated.
A change of state of matter is due to intensity of the balancing mechanism within the electromagnetic spectrum. It takes energy to boil water. When water reaches 100 degree Celsius, it turns to steam. In terms of photon absorption and radiation, Bhekuzulu observes that the temperature of water increases during heating because lower frequency photons are absorbed and radiated by water. The photons being radiated affect other atoms. Radiation has no direction, and a lot of it is internal. Hence, when those low frequency photons are released, depending on the structure of the atoms and molecules, the internal radiation forces’ increased electromagnetic activity within the neighbouring atoms would ease the increased activity, internally. When water boils at 100 degrees Celsius, it represents a certain point where the number of level of low energy photons are too high. In order to increase efficiency by getting rid of excess photons and maintain the internal balance, the system transforms its state from liquid to vapour form and water boils at this point. The same reasoning applies when a metal turns to liquid when heated (for example, gold).
Bhekuzulu observes that the heat that comes during boiling of water, in effect, comes from radiation of photons. This quality of photons gives the temperature. Bhekuzulu says that thermometers are just scales that can measure the number of photons that radiate heat. A thermometer only gives quantity, it is not a qualitative measuring instrument that can tell the composition of the photons that make up the heat in that location. A photon just does not have one type of energy, hf, but also Ŧ – hf, where Ŧ – hf is the expression for heat. If we can get a scale that measures the number of photons and type of photons in an atmosphere, it could calculate the temperature more accurately than any known thermometers in the modern world. Further analysing the present day thermometers in terms of this recent research, Bhekuzulu concludes that for the thermometer to be a wonderful piece of technology, it must accurately measure temperature merely from the electromagnetic phenomenon in the atmosphere, thus the sophisticated thermometer will give both a quantitative and qualitative temperature reading.
The same applies to maintenance of human body temperature. The release of body heat is due to a chemical reaction which releases low frequency photons at a constant rate. Bhekuzulu observes that our body radiates low frequency photons constantly per unit of cells, and hence we are able to maintain the same body temperature throughout, which ensures the sustenance of life.
This research paper challenges the existing definition of temperature as the kinetic energy of atoms. Bhekuzulu concludes that at the atomic level, an atom keeps on absorbing and radiating different frequency electromagnetic phenomenon, all at nearly the same time, be it minutes, seconds, or nanoseconds. When the low frequency photons that are easily absorbed by the material receive heat, due to balancing of energy, the photons radiate heat, internally and externally. From these observations and analysis, Bhekuzulu concludes that when a material gets hotter, it is not due to the movement of atoms, but due to the increase in electromagnetic activity involving low frequency photons. The heat is all due to electromagnetism.
Bhekuzulu extensively analyses the photonic cycle where the electromagnetic phenomenon is absorbed or scattered, and when absorbed it is usually radiated as a lower frequency photon. The photonic cycle is just the flow of energy, or merely a continuous recycling of energy, needed to sustain intelligent life into perpetuity, as it would be impossible for the universe to die or go to a state of non-existence. The photonic cycle is the sustenance of the universe, the continual activity of the electromagnetic spectrum.
This research paper also challenges the general observations like: “Earth’s radiation is emitted as longwave because longwave radiation contains a smaller amount of energy”.
Bhekuzulu also ponders why the earth’s design allows radio waves up to a certain point without adversely affecting the life on earth, and why the temperature is not higher. It is mainly attributed to the slowness of the radio waves compared to the frequency of microwaves right up to gamma rays. Traveling faster does not mean having more energy, it just means having more of a different type of energy. When the photon is absorbed and released as lower frequency, it slows down as if it has picked up a load. The radio waves are so slow that they are overwhelmed by the information delivered by higher frequency windows. The earth’s atmospheric window allows radio waves up to 10 meters, ultraviolet light has a frequency 10 billion times that of these radio waves; anything more than this is blocked by electrical charges in the atmosphere. Bhekuzulu concludes that this is the reason why we are not boiling over in the earth, as supported by the photonic balance before.
The paper also provides insights into photonic mists created by man-made waves like commercial radio waves or cell phone signals. Every cellphone signal could potentially be responsible for increasing the heat in the atmosphere. Bhekuzulu observes that the photonic mist is man-made photons in the atmosphere, and they can contribute to global warming, if such an event is taking place.
Bhekuzulu highlights the importance of understanding how the atmosphere captures and releases photons and the possible conditions conducive to life in other planets. A terrestrial planet with an atmosphere that is at a distance equal to that of Neptune from the sun, could theoretically have temperatures that allow liquid water because of the way in which the electromagnetic spectrum interacts with the atmosphere. Bhekuzulu also observes the importance of photonic cycle in the maintenance of life. Intelligent life can sustain and prosper in any planet with correct atmospheric condition that needs heat from any source (such as star), because the intelligent life will find a way to introduce heat so that life can sustain itself there by utilizing the photonic cycle.