There are many types of chemical raw materials and their uses are very wide. There are as many as 5 to 7 million kinds of chemicals in the world, and more than 100,000 kinds are sold and circulated on the market, and more than 1,000 new chemicals are released every year, which are indispensable for us in the chemical industry Basic materials. So what are some aspects of the use of chemical raw materials that must be paid attention to?
1. What are chemical raw materials
There are many types of chemical raw materials and their uses are very wide. There are as many as 5-7 million kinds of chemicals in the world, and more than 100,000 kinds are sold on the market, and more than 1,000 new chemicals are released every year, and 150-200 of them are considered to be carcinogenic. Thing.
2. Types of chemical raw materials
1. Chemical raw materials can be generally divided into organic chemical raw materials and inorganic chemical raw materials according to their material sources.
(1) Organic chemical raw materials
Can be divided into alkanes and their derivatives, alkenes and their derivatives, alkynes and their derivatives, quinones, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, phenols, ethers, anhydrides, esters, organic acids, carboxylic acids Salts, carbohydrates, heterocycles, nitriles, halogenated groups, aminoacids, etc.
(2) Inorganic chemical raw materials
The main raw materials of inorganic chemical products are sulfur, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and other chemical minerals (see inorganic salt industry) and coal, oil, natural gas and air and water. In addition, by-products and wastes in many industrial sectors are also raw materials for inorganic chemicals, such as: coke oven gas in the coking production process in the iron and steel industry. The ammonia contained in it can be recovered by sulfuric acid to make ammonium sulfate, chalcopyrite, galena Sulfur dioxide in the smelting exhaust gas of ore and sphalerite can be used to produce sulfuric acid.
2. According to the production process, it can be divided into starting materials, basic materials and intermediate materials
(1) Starting materials
The starting materials are the raw materials needed in the first step of chemical production, such as air, water, fossil fuels (ie coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), sea salt, various minerals, agricultural products (such as starch-containing food or wild plants, containing Cellulose wood, bamboo, reeds, straw, etc.).
(2) Basic raw materials
The basic raw materials are obtained from processed starting materials, such as calcium carbide and various organic and inorganic raw materials listed above.
(3) Intermediate raw materials
Intermediate raw materials, also called intermediates, generally refer to products produced from basic raw materials in complex organic chemical production, but they are not final products and require further processing. For example, various organic compounds for the production of dyes, plastics and pharmaceuticals: methanol, acetone, vinyl chloride, etc.
3. Safe operation of common chemical raw materials
Precautions during the use of styrene
1. Storage: Store in a sealed and cool place. Not recommended for long-term storage and mass storage stock temperature ≤ 30 ℃.
2. Precautions for operation: The closed operation is well ventilated, and the operator should protect the parts that directly and indirectly contact with styrene: the operator wears a filter gas mask (half mask), chemical safety protective glasses, anti-poison penetration work clothes Rubber oil resistant gloves. Keep away from fire and heat, smoking is strictly prohibited in the workplace. Handle with care during handling.
3. Fire fighting methods: fire extinguishing agent, foam, dry powder, carbon dioxide, sand. Fire extinguishing is invalid.
Precautions during use of acetone
1. Storage: Store in a sealed and cool place with storage temperature ≤29 ℃.
2. Precautions for operation: airtight operation is well ventilated to reduce the contact and inhalation of skin with acetone. Operators Operators wear filter gas masks (half masks), chemical safety glasses, and butyl rubber gloves.
3. Fire fighting methods: fire extinguishing agent, alcohol-resistant foam, dry powder, carbon dioxide, sand. Fire extinguishing is invalid.
Matters needing attention in the use of industrial methyl ethyl ketone
1. Storage: Methyl ethyl ketone should not be exposed to sunlight to isolate fire, and there should be signs of flammable and toxic hazard on the barrel.
2. Precautions for operation: Smoking is strictly prohibited in the closed and well-ventilated work site. Pay attention to personal hygiene. Avoid long-term repeated contact. If necessary for work, you should wear safety protective glasses, self-priming filter gas masks, anti-static work clothes, and latex gloves.
3. Fire-fighting methods: alcohol-resistant foam, dry powder, carbon dioxide, sand. Fire extinguishing is invalid.
Precautions during use of acetylacetone
1. Storage: Store at low temperature and keep away from open flames or oxidants.
2. Precautions for operation: There is good ventilation in closed operation, and no open flames are allowed at the work site. When working, you should wear safety protective glasses, self-priming filter gas masks, antistatic work clothes, and latex gloves.
3. Fire fighting methods: fire extinguishing agent, water spray, foam, dry powder, carbon dioxide, sand. Firefighters must wear gas masks and full-body firefighting suits to extinguish the fire in the upwind direction.
Matters needing attention in the use of dimethylaniline
1. Storage: Store in a cool and ventilated place, away from fire and heat.
2. Precautions for operation: airtight operation provides adequate local exhaust. Operators must undergo special training and strictly abide by the operating regulations. It is recommended that the operator wear a filtering gas mask (half mask), wear chemical safety protective glasses, wear anti-penetration work clothes, and wear rubber oil resistant gloves. Avoid contact with acids and halogens. Handle lightly when handling to prevent damage to packaging and containers.
3. Fire-fighting method: use water spray, foam, carbon dioxide, dry powder and sand to extinguish the fire.
Precautions during the use of butanone peroxide
Storage: usually stored after dilution. Store in a cool, ventilated place. Keep away from fire and heat. Prevent direct sunlight. Keep container tightly closed. It should be stored separately from reducing agents, acids, alkalis, flammable (combustible) materials, and edible chemicals. Avoid mixed storage. Equipped with the appropriate variety and quantity of fire equipment. Vibration, impact and friction are prohibited.
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