It is not difficult to meet someone who has sneezing, itching, nasal obstruction and a runny nose. These are the symptoms of rhinitis, which can present itself in an infectious or allergic manner, the latter being the most prevalent disease among chronic respiratory diseases, affecting 20 to 25% of the general population, according to data from the Pan American Health Organization. Health (PAHO-Brazil), which works with the regional office of the World Health Organization (WHO).
Rhinitis is acute or chronic, infectious, allergic or irritating inflammation of the nasal mucosa. The most serious cases are mostly caused by viruses. Chronic cases are generally determined by allergic rhinitis, which manifests itself when the patient is exposed to components such as mites, dust, fungi, urine, hair and saliva of animals such as dogs and cats, as explained by the specialist doctor in Otorhinolaryngology and Cervical Surgery Facial, Flavio Henrique Barbosa, of the Otoface Otorrino Brasilia Clinic, located in Brasilia.
Despite presenting less severe symptoms, rhinitis is among the ten most frequent reasons for primary health care, according to PAHO Brazil. It affects the quality of life of people and interferes in the productive period of their lives, since it can impair the performance of daily activities, such as working and studying.
The ENT explains that the disease can manifest itself in an infectious, allergic, non-allergic and mixed manner. “There are four groups that take into account criteria such as frequency, intensity of symptoms, response obtained with treatments and complications.”
Infectious rhinitis, the most common type of the disease, is caused by bacteria or viruses, and is also known as a common cold. “This type of rhinitis happens when the causative agent settles in the mucous membranes of the nose, causing an infection,” explained the doctor.
Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by chronic sneezing, runny nose or congestion. The symptoms are similar to allergic rhinitis, but in this case the patient’s immune system is not involved at any time.
When the disease manifests itself in an allergic way, that is, an organism response, through the immune system, the presence of particles considered foreign, allergic rhinitis is diagnosed. “In this type of rhinitis, the body reacts intensely to the presence of these allergens to defend itself. That is why when a person has a crisis it is common to have runny nose, itchy nose, sneezing and nasal obstruction,” highlighted Barbosa.
However, mixed rhinitis (www.otofacebrasilia.com.br/otorrinolaringologia/rinitis/) is the type of rhinitis that has more than one causative agent, that is, it is the result of the action of a virus and a bacterium simultaneously. “The important thing is that the patient has the correct diagnosis about his type of rhinitis and thus receive the appropriate treatment for the control of the disease,” added the otorrino.
In general, the main symptoms of allergic rhinitis are constant runny nose, sneezing, watery eyes, great irritation in the mouth, eyes, nose, throat and skin, decreased smell and hearing, dark circles, headaches, fatigue and cough.
Clinica Otoface Otorrino Brasilia (www.otofacebrasilia.com.br) has been serving patients in Brasilia for more than 14 years, always investing in research and professional development. His work focuses on the areas of Otorhinolaryngology, Orthodontics, Functional Jaw Orthopedics and Facial Plastic Surgery.
With the objective of providing easy access to quality treatments for rhinitis and other respiratory diseases, in addition to being a reference in the medical sector of Brasilia, the clinic serves private patients and more than 50 medical plans, the main ones in Brazil.