Cone crusher is the basic type of crusher equipment in the field of stone crushing. Because it is foundational, its application range is very wide. To meet the crushing requirements of various fields better and more appropriately, cone crushers can be divided into coarse crushing and medium-fine crushing according to the discharge requirements. Also, they can be divided into spring cone crushers, hydraulic cone crushers, and high-efficiency cone crushers according to the structure and function. The following is a detailed introduction to the characteristics and differences of various types of cone crusher equipment.
According to the discharge requirements, it can be divided into:
Coarse crushing: When it comes to coarse crushing, many people will think of a jaw crusher at the first time. Indeed, jaw crusher is the representative of coarse crushing equipment, but to meet the needs of material crushing more economically and efficiently, it is very important to choose coarse crushing equipment reasonably according to the characteristics and requirements of various materials. For example, there are also cone crushers specially used for coarse crushing, which are called gyratory crushers. It is mainly used in the beneficiation industry and other industrial sectors to coarsely crush ores of various hardness. Because the machine needs to process larger pieces of material, the feed inlet is required to be wide, the movable cone is upright, and the fixed cone is inverted to meet the crushing requirements for ore materials. So, what are the advantages of the gyratory crusher compared to the jaw crusher, which is used for coarse crushing? As follows:
The main advantages of the gyratory crusher (compared with the jaw crusher):
1. The crushing cavity has large depth, continuous work, high production capacity, and low unit power consumption. Compared to the jaw crusher with the same width of the feed mouth, the production capacity is more than twice that of the latter, and the power consumption per ton of ore is 0.5-1.2 times lower than that of the jaw crusher.
2. The work is relatively stable, the vibration is lighter, and the basis weight of the machine and equipment is relatively small. The basis weight of the gyratory crusher is usually 2-3 times the weight of the machine and equipment, while the basis weight of the jaw crusher is 5-10 times the weight of the machine itself.
3. It can be filled with the ore, and the large-scale gyratory crusher can feed the raw ore directly, without the need for additional ore bins and feeders. However, the jaw crusher cannot be packed with the ore, and the ore is required to be evenly fed, so it is necessary to set up another ore warehouse (or ore hopper) and a mining feeder. When the ore lump size is greater than 400 mm, it is necessary to install an expensive heavy-duty plate type to the miner.
Medium and fine crushing: In addition to the coarse crushing mentioned above, cone crushers can also be used for medium and fine crushing. According to the current situation of the crushing workshops of most of GUBT country’s concentrators, most of the medium crushing equipment uses standard cone crushers, and most of the fine crushing equipment uses short-head cone crushers, which has almost been finalized. Since the basic structure and working principle of the standard cone crusher and the short-head cone crusher are the same, and the processed materials are coarsely crushed, the feed inlet does not need to be large, but the unloading range is required to be increased, To improve the production capacity, the crushed product requires a relatively uniform particle size. Therefore, the moving cone and the fixed cone are both upright. The moving cone is made into a fungus shape. Near the discharge port, there is a parallel belt with an equal distance between the moving cone and the fixed cone to ensure the uniform particle size of the discharged material. Because of the small slope of the moving cone surface of this type of cone crusher, the material rolls down along the inclined surface of the moving cone when unloading. Therefore, the unloading will be affected by the frictional resistance of the inclined surface, and will also be affected by the centrifugal inertia force during the deflection and rotation of the cone. Therefore, this type of crusher is not free to discharge, so the working principle and calculation are somewhat different from the coarse crushing cone crusher.
The difference between standard cone crusher and short head cone crusher:
Since the basic structure and working principle of the standard cone crusher and the short-head cone crusher is the same, only the shape of the crushing cavity is slightly different. Therefore, the key to the difference lies in the crushing of the parallel belts. As shown in the figure below, the short-headed parallel belts are longer. Therefore, both the feed and discharge ports are relatively small, and a finer product particle size can be obtained. The standard type is shorter, so the crushed product is thicker and the output is higher. Generally, it is used for medium crushing after the rough crushing, that is, after the jaw or gyratory crusher.
The difference between standard cone crusher and short head cone crusher in crushing parallel belt.
According to structure and function: spring cone crusher and hydraulic cone crusher.
1. Spring cone crusher
The performance of the spring cone crusher is stable, especially the overload protection device of the spring safety system makes the iron block pass through the crushing cavity without harming the equipment. The unique sealing system isolates the stone powder and lubricating oil, which can ensure the reliable operation of the spring cone crusher. The spring cone crusher is mainly used in quarries, stone factories, mining, etc. It plays an important role in the crushing and processing of various metal mines, limestone, granite, basalt, and other ores and construction aggregates.
1. The moving cone rotates continuously, and the crushing process and the unloading process of the material are continuously alternated. The crushing and unloading are carried out in an orderly manner, which ensures the balance of the material in and out;
2. The breaking speed between the material and the two crushing cones is crushed by squeezing, and the moving cone rotates continuously and evenly, which is higher in production efficiency than a jaw crusher;
3. The speed of the spring cone crusher is high, the inertia of the eccentric movement is large, and the crushing is relatively large, so it has a good hard rock crushing ability;
4. The structure of the spring cone crushing motor cone is relatively precise, and it uses thin oil lubrication to prevent the deformation of the crushed parts caused by the temperature rise during the rotation, and effectively protect the bowl-shaped bush and the shaft copper sleeve;
5. It has a spring safety system and overload protection capability, which can effectively discharge the choking iron and improve the ability of the cone crusher to cope with emergencies;
6. The spring cone crusher is still cheaper than the hydraulic cone crusher, and it is an economical and efficient crusher.
1. It is not suitable for crushing wet and sticky ores;
2. The weight of the machine is relatively large, it is 1.7-2 times heavier than the jaw crusher of the same size for the mine opening, so the investment cost is higher without preparation;
3. The revolving fuselage is relatively high, which is generally 2-3 times higher than the jaw crusher, so the construction cost of the plant is relatively large;
4. Installation and maintenance are complicated, and maintenance is also inconvenient.
2. Hydraulic cone crusher
The hydraulic cone crusher is a new type of cone crusher improved based on the spring cone crusher and based on customer opinions. It is divided into two series, the HPC series hydraulic cone crusher and the HCS series hydraulic cone crusher. It greatly improves the production capacity and crushing efficiency, and also expands the scope of application. The hydraulic cone crusher relies on the rotation of the motor to move around a fixed rotation under the force of the eccentric sleeve through the pulley or coupling, the transmission shaft, and the cone. Therefore, the crushing wall of the cone crusher is sometimes close to and away from the surface of the white wall fixed on the adjusting sleeve, so that the ore is continuously impacted, squeezed, and bent in the crushing cavity to realize the crushing of the ore.
1. Large crushing ratio and high production efficiency. The combination of higher speed and stroke greatly improves the rated power and passing capacity of the HP crusher and improves the crushing ratio and production efficiency.
2. Low consumption of wearing parts, low operating cost, reasonable structure, advanced crushing principle, and technical parameters, reliable operation, and low operating cost; all parts of the crusher are protected against wear, which reduces maintenance costs to a minimum, and is generally used The life span can be increased by more than 30%.
3. The laminated crushing and the finished product have excellent particle shape. The special crushing cavity designed by the principle of inter-particle lamination and the matching speed replaces the traditional single-particle crushing principle to achieve selective crushing of materials, which significantly improves The fine material ratio and cube content of the product greatly reduce the needle-like material.
4. Hydraulic protection and hydraulic cavity clearing, high degree of automation, reduce downtime, hydraulic adjustment of the discharge opening, and overload protection greatly improve the operation level of the cone crusher, making maintenance easier, more convenient to operate, and shorter downtime; The HP series cone crusher bidirectional iron-passing release hydraulic cylinder can allow iron pieces to pass through the crushing chamber. The cone crusher can hydraulically lift the top and automatically discharge the material in the case of iron-over and instantaneous car jams, which greatly reduces the original spring cone. The crusher needs to be shut down for manual discharging, while many other manufacturers’ crushers will shut down due to iron jams.
5. A variety of crushing cavity types, flexible application, and strong adaptability. HP cone crusher only needs to replace fixed cone liner and moving cone liner. The shape of the crushing cavity can be from standard super coarse cavity to short head super fine cavity Transformation to meet the requirements of a wide range of product granularity.
Matters needing attention when using:
1. Choose the correct crushing cavity for the material to be crushed;
2. The feed size ratio is appropriate;
3. The feed is evenly distributed within the range of 3600 in the crushing chamber;
4. Automatic control device;
5. The discharge area of the crusher is unobstructed;
6. The specifications of the conveyor belt are compatible with the maximum processing capacity of the crusher;
7. Appropriate selection of the sieve specifications for pre-screening and closed-circuit screening;
The following factors will reduce the production capacity of hydraulic cone crushers
1. The fine material smaller than the discharge opening in the feed exceeds 10% of the production capacity of the crusher;
2. The feed contains viscous materials;
3. Lack of feeding control;
4. The feed material distribution around the crushing cavity is uneven;
5. The recommended power is not used;
6. Insufficient screening capacity of the system;
7. The discharge area of the crusher is not smooth.