The air-conditioning structure principle and internal refrigerant pressure of hybrid electric vehicles are the same as those of traditional automobile air-conditioning systems. The main difference lies in the auto ac compressor. The traditional automobile compressor is driven by the engine through a belt, and the refrigeration performance is completed by the ECU adjusting the swash plate angle of the compressor. The hybrid compressor is driven by a motor, and the refrigeration performance is completed by the HCU (Hybrid Control Module) controlling the motor speed, that is, the compressor speed.
The traditional ac compressors only use 12V voltage control. Electric air-conditioning compressors need to use 12V voltage for control and high voltage to drive the motor to run.
In the warm air operation mode, a traditional car uses a blower to transport the hot air heated by the engine cooling water to the room, and the cooling water pump provides the cooling water to circulate to the heating water tank. In the electric mode, the engine may not work, and an additional electric warm water pump provides a heated cooling water circulation to the heater core.
Traditional mechanical compressors can only provide low refrigeration output when the engine is idling, while electric compressors can provide constant refrigeration output.
The electric compressor is a non-belt structure, and the installation position is not restricted by the belt connection, and can be installed in any position of the vehicle. The main control components of electric compressors are microprocessors and inverters. The microprocessor receives the compressor target speed command from the air-conditioning controller to provide the required power for the motor; in addition, it feeds back the actual speed information of the motor and provides the current to the air-conditioning controller for closing control.
The inverter converts the 270V direct current supplied to the compressor into alternating current, receives commands from the microprocessor, and provides the required electric power to the compressor motor. The control components of the electric compressor also include a current detection circuit and a high-voltage capacitor.