The sensor industry is a knowledge-intensive and technology-intensive industry, which is related to many disciplines and has a great variety. The following is a brief introduction of the widely used sensor classification methods.
1. According to the working principle of the sensor classification
This is the most common classification of sensors.This classification method is based on the principles, laws and functions of physics, chemistry, biology and other disciplines. It is conducive to the explanation of the working principle of the sensor and the in-depth research and analysis of the sensor, but it is not convenient for the user to choose according to the purpose.
According to the different working principles of sensors, sensors can be divided into electrical parameter sensors (including resistive, inductive and capacitive sensors), piezoelectric sensors, photoelectric sensors (including general photoelectric, optical fiber, laser and infrared sensors, etc.), Thermoelectric sensors, semiconductor sensors, Wave sensor and radiation sensors, etc.Most of these types of sensors are named based on their respective principles of physical effects.
2. Classification according to the purpose of the sensor
Classified according to the purpose of sensors, such as displacement sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, temperature sensors, etc., it is very helpful for people to use sensors systematically.
3. Classification according to the material category of the sensor
a. Semiconductor material
Semiconductor materials have great advantages in sensing technology. It is sensitive to a lot of information, has mature integrated circuit technology, and is easy to realize multi-function, integration and intelligence. It is also a good base material, so it is an ideal sensor material. Among them, the most used is silicon material. Silicon is light and has a high strength-to-density ratio and stiffness-to-density ratio, therefore, it is suitable for making sensors. Semiconductor silicon has a wide range of applications in force sensitive, thermal sensitive, photosensitive, magnetic sensitive, gas sensitive, ion sensitive and other sensitive components.
b. Ceramic material
Ceramic material has great potential in sensitive technology. It has heat resistance, corrosion resistance, porous, photoelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties. Ceramic materials have been made such as temperature (new thermistor), gas, humidity, photoelectric, ion, ultrasonic and acceleration, force, gyro and other sensors.
c. Magnetic material
Many sensors use magnetic materials. At present, magnetic materials are developing in the direction of amorphization and thin film.Amorphous magnetic materials have the characteristics of high permeability, low coercivity, high resistivity, corrosion resistance, and high hardness, and will therefore be more and more widely used. Since amorphous does not have magnetic isotropy, it is a material with high magnetic permeability and low loss, and it is easy to obtain a rotating magnetic field，Therefore, it can be used to make magnetometers or flux sensitive elements, and stress sensors with high sensitivity can also be made by using the stress-magnetic effect. Force-sensitive elements based on magnetostrictive effect will also be developed.Because the sensitivity of this type of material is several times higher than that of Permalloy (iron-nickel alloy), it can greatly reduce the eddy current loss, thereby obtaining excellent magnetic properties, which is more valuable for high frequencies.By taking advantage of this characteristic, it is possible to produce a fast responsive sense which is difficult to obtain in magnetic crystals.
d. Smart Materials
Smart materials refer to the design and control of physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and other parameters of materials, and the development of man-made materials that have the characteristics of biological materials or are superior to biological materials. Smart materials have the ability to adapt to the environment, self-diagnosis, self-repair, and self-enhancement functions. The exploration of smart materials has just begun, and it is believed that there will be great development in the near future.
Shenzhen Xinjingcheng Technology Co., Ltd. is mainly engaged in the production of tension and compression sensors, miniature load cells, high-precision load cells, torque sensors, S-type sensors, shear beam sensors, multi-dimensional force sensors, tension sensors, transmitters, R&D and production of control instruments and a supplier of force control system solutions.
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