The Present Situation and Future of CAR-T

CAR-T, as an immune cell therapy program, has attracted a lot of attention from scholars, doctors, patients, investors in the world. However, what is CAR-T?

CAR-T, as an immune cell therapy program, has attracted a lot of attention from scholars, doctors, patients, investors in the world. However, what is CAR-T? What is the current research situation and where is the CAR T development direction?

CAR-T brings a new dawn

Since ancient times, people continue to struggle with cancer. The appearance of CAR makes people find opportunity to reverse the situation in the fight against cancer of the latent and ubiquitous demon war.

The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is introduced into T cells to produce tumor specific T cells. Once T cells express the receptor, it can be used to bind and activate T cells with a single fusion molecule and antigen. The scFv generation by T cells can regulate the function and specificity of T cells.

The CAR-transformed T cells are directed against any cell surface antigens, including protein / sugar, polyclonal antibody sequence provoked by glucose, which makes the CAR transformed T cells can identify broader objectives compared with natural T cell surface receptor TCR.

CAR-T cell test and future challenges

First generation of CAR-T cell test

The effectiveness of the first generation of T cells by CAR has been tested by a number of units to carry out clinical trials. Overall, the early use of the first generation of CAR-T to carry out clinical trials did not show significant effectiveness. Moreover, these experiments have significant differences in many aspects, including target gene selection, gene transduction, in vitro amplification methods, cell number, IL-2 dosage and conditioning treatment options.

Second generation of CAR-T cell test

Clinical data indicated the broad prospects of this field. Many research centers used the second generation of T cells by CAR began clinical research.

Third generation of CAR-T cell experiment

One patient with colon cancer underwent ERBB2-targeted third generation CAR (CD28/4-1BBCD3z) therapy. The patient died 5 days after accepting transformed T cells.

Future challenges

The ultimate goal of tumor immunotherapy is to cure the tumor without the toxicity of traditional therapy. Clinical research and early clinical studies of CAR transformed T cells have made this goal no longer distant. CAR-T cell therapy for cancer has multiple advantages: non-HLA dependence of target antigen, a wide range of adaptability for majority of patients, avoid tumor escape and amplify tumor specific T cell population in a short period of time.

Despite the difficulties, this field has developed in a relatively short period of time. The success of all tumor therapies only lies in their efficacy in clinical patients. In order to fully judge the effectiveness of this therapy, it is necessary to implement a multi-center-joint clinical trial, which requires a large number of human and financial support.

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