CAR-T, the Arrival of A New Era of Cancer

What is CAR-T?

The concept of CAR-T was proposed by Dr. Zelig Eshhar of Israel in the 80s of last century, and was the first to develop chimeric antigen receptor T cells. CAR-T focuses on immunotherapy, introducing new concepts and methods, adoptive immune responses induce cancer.

Safety and Countermeasure of CAR-T therapy

The main obstacle to promote CAR-T therapy is off-effect. Like CD19, it is not the target of cancer, but the target of B cell itself. The tumor cells are removed and the B cells are removed too.

As long as the target is not tumor-specific completely, there will be off-target-effects, which is the main source of CAR-T side effects. According to reports, for a case of HER2 as the target antigen for colon cancer CAR-T treatment, the patient had respiratory distress 15 minutes after the CAR-T treatment, and died after five days.

In order to improve the safety and efficacy of CAR-T treatment, a conservative dose escalation method is used in 2 days in dispersed T cells, and continuous monitoring is to prevent further signs of toxicity. The block out of target antigen is also necessary for off-target with monoclonal antibody. It has also recently proposed the introduction of suicide genes, and it may need immediate initiation of CAR-T suicide.

CAR-T therapy of lung

So far, most of the clinical CAR-T results have come from the treatment of blood diseases. CAR-T begins to start for solid tumors.

The most important thing is to find a suitable target antigen. The first target antigen is carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The CEA of many patients with lung cancer is much higher than the normal value, indicating that most of carcinoembryonic antigen is expressive. Another one we can think of is EGFR (HER1).

With the continuous development of the new target antigen CAR-T, we will have more options, such as HER2, CEA, PDL1, VEGFR and other targets for the CAR-T. Generally a cancer cell proliferation to 1 cm need 5-10 years. 5 years later, there will be more magical anti-cancer drugs.

About the author:

Biolabs CellRapeutics can produce a variety of CAR-T cells for tumor markers, including CD19.

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